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sensors:ppg [2022/03/22 22:31]
monahedayati
sensors:ppg [2022/03/22 23:56] (current)
monahedayati
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 ====== Photoplethysmography (PPG)====== ====== Photoplethysmography (PPG)======
  
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-The Photoplethysmography (PPG) also known as Blood Volume Pulse (BVP) is a non-invasive, low-cost biosignal sensor predominantly used in medical and psychophysiological settings to measure the heart rate. In the former case, it is used as a transportable (mobile or wearable) alternative to Electrocardiograms (ECG) outside of clinical settings, whereas in the latter it is often used in biofeedback, a technique to gain awareness and control over physiological functions that affect mental or neurobiological conditions. Furthermore, the Heart Rate Variable (HRV) derived from PPG signal can be effectively used as an indicator for emotion recognition most effectively alongside other biosignals such as EDA, EMG, or respiration sensing. Alongside other biosignal sensing devices, PPG has also been used in artistic audiovisual installations, typically collecting sensor data from an audience to create an evolving installation environment. +The Photoplethysmography (PPG) also known as Blood Volume Pulse (BVP) is a non-invasive, low-cost biosignal sensor predominantly used in medical and psychophysiological settings to measure the heart rate. In the former case, it is used as a transportable (mobile or wearable) alternative to Electrocardiograms (ECG) outside of clinical settings, whereas in the latter it is often used in biofeedback, a technique to gain awareness and control over physiological functions that affect mental or neurobiological conditions. Furthermore, the Heart Rate Variable (HRV) derived from PPG signal can be effectively used as an indicator for emotion recognition most effectively alongside other biosignals such as EDA, EMG, or respiration sensing. Alongside other biosignal sensing devices, PPG has also been used in artistic audiovisual installations, typically collecting sensor data from an audience to create an evolving installation environment. <sup>1</sup>
  
 ====== Background ====== ====== Background ======
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 There are several factors that can alter the PPG recordings that can be classified as sensing architecture, biological, and cardiovascular factors outlined in the table below. There are several factors that can alter the PPG recordings that can be classified as sensing architecture, biological, and cardiovascular factors outlined in the table below.
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 +{{:sensors:ppg_1.png?direct&400|}}
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 +//Factors affecting the PPG recordings [[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426305/\|(Ghamari, 2018)]]//
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 +
 +====== Signal Components ======
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 +PPG Signal is composed of AC (pulsatile) and DC (superimposed) components. The former arises from heartbeats provided by the cardiac synchronous variation in blood volume while the latter is formed by respiration, sympathetic nervous system activity, and thermoregulation. The AC depicts the blood volume change reflected in valleys and peaks. As mentioned before, PPG can also measure HRV used to evaluate the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomous nervous system. PPG signal is divided into 2 distinct phases of the rising edge and falling edge of the signal. A second derivative wave of the PPG signal called the Acceleration Photoplethysmogram (APG) can also be obtained that is more commonly used in clinical settings as it illustrates the acceleration of blood.
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 +{{:sensors:ppg_2.png?direct&400|}}
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 +//AC component of the PPG signal &the corresponding ECG[[https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6482990_Photoplethysmography_and_its_application_in_clinical_physiological_measurement|(Allen, 2007)]]//
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 +====== Analysis ======
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 +PPG signals are susceptible to motion artifacts that are typically observed in hand movements as well as environmental noise which affect the signal acquisition and estimation accuracy of the heart rate that is measured by the inter-beat interval of the signal. One of the pathways to remedy this limitation involves a 2-stage process where initially the corrupt signal is detected using Short Term Fourier Transform (STFT) while a subsequent step applies Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) to approximate the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the signal. This solution is proved to be effective to remove short-term disturbances to the signal. While a clean ECG signal could have been analysed for frequency-based features in HRV, through the process described, the algorithm provides the same possibility for PPG signal analysis.  
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 +====== Remote PPG ======
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 +There have been several methods developed for contactless PPG known as remote PPG (rPPG) over the years whose principle of operation relies on a digital camera to capture video footage from an isolated body part, typically the fingertip that can then estimate the heart rate by tracking the skin color changes due to cardiovascular activity unnoticeable to the human eye. A recent technique relies on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to read and process digital images based on the color intensity of pixels to obtain PPG data and extract signals.
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 +====== Available Sensors on the Market ======
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 +For medical/research use, Empatica E4 wristband is a wearable wireless device that offers PPG, EDA, 3-axis accelerometer, and optical thermometer sensing. Through its mobile API the following data are made available in real time: blood volume pulse at 64Hz and inter beat interval time pair obtained from the PPG sensor; electrodermal activity at 4Hz; XYZ raw acceleration at 32Hz; and skin temperature at 4Hz. The current list price on their website is 1,690 USD. 
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 +BITalino BVP finger clip is a wired transmission-mode sensor that works in conjunction with other BITalino sensors that are sold separately or as part of a sensor kit. It offers a preconditioned analog output with a high signal-to-noise ratio currently retailed at €240 as standalone or paired with an all-in-one board (MCU, power, and Bluetooth) for €65.
 +For biofeedback training, FDA-certified NeXus EXG is a wired sensor kit that measures BVP in conjunction with other biosignals such as EDA, respiration, and temperature. It uses proprietary carbon technology alongside active noise cancellation that measures the external noise and subtracts it from the signal. 
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 +Valencell, a company producing high-performance PPGs, offers their sensor package (hardware, optomechanical design, firmware and algorithms) to be integrated into wearable (wrist/arm bands) and hearable (earbuds) designs. Their PPG is equipped with active signal characterization to remove noise from optical signals during heavy activity and challenging environments coupled with a low-power accelerometer. 
 +
 +===== References =====
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 +  * Allen, J. (2007). Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement. // Physiological Measurement, 28(3),// R1–R39.  [[https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/28/3/R01]]
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 +  * Ayesha, A. H., Qiao, D., & Zulkernine, F. (2021). Heart Rate Monitoring Using PPG With Smartphone Camera. //2021 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM)//, 2985–2991. [[https://doi.org/10.1109/BIBM52615.2021.9669735]]
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 +  * BIOPAC Systems Inc. (2022). //Blood Volume//. [[https://www.biopac.com/application/plethysmography/advanced-feature/blood-volume/]]
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 +  * Ghamari, M. (2018).  A review on wearable photoplethysmography sensors and their potential future applications in health care. //International Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 4(4).// [[https://doi.org/10.15406/ijbsbe.2018.04.00125]]
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 +  * Luo, S., Zhou, J., Duh, H. B.-L., & Chen, F. (2017). BVP Feature Signal Analysis for Intelligent User Interface. //Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems,//1861–1868. [[https://doi.org/10.1145/3027063.3053121]]
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 +  * Picard, R. W. (1997). //Affective computing//. MIT Press.
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 +  * Zhan, Q., Wang, W., & de Haan, G. (2020). Analysis of CNN-based remote-PPG to understand limitations and sensitivities. //Biomedical Optics Express, 11(3), //1268. [[https://doi.org/10.1364/BOE.382637]]
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 +  - Fan, Y., & Sciotto, F.M. (2013). BioSync: An Informed Participatory Interface for Audience Dynamics and Audiovisual Content Co-creation using Mobile PPG and EEG. //NIME//; Fan, Y., & Sciotto, F.M. (2013). Time Giver: An Installation of Collective Expression using Mobile PPG and EEG in the AlloSphere.
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